Actor Model

An actor is an isolated, independent unit of compute and state with single-threaded execution. The actor pattern is a computational model for concurrent or distributed systems in which a large number of these actors can execute simultaneously and independently of each other. Actors can communicate with each other and they can create more actors.

The concurrency models we have considered so far have the notion of shared state in common. Shared state can be accessed by multiple threads at the same time and must thus be protected, either by locking or by using transactions.

We now have a look at an entirely different approach but without the notion of shared state. State is still mutable, however it is exclusively coupled to single entities that are allowed to alter it, so-called actors.

An actor is a computational entity that, in response to a message it receives, can concurrently:

  • send a finite number of messages to other actors
  • create a finite number of new actors
  • designate the behavior to be used for the next message it receives.

There is no assumed sequence to the above actions and they could be carried out in parallel.



For communication, the actor model uses asynchronous message passing.
When implementing the actor model, it is important to adhere to the set of rules defined by the original idea. First and foremost, actors must not share any state. This disallows actors to pass references, pointers or any other kind of shared data as part of a message. Only immutable data and addresses (i.e. “names”) of actors should be sent. Message passing between actors is often enriched with a few more guarantees compared to the entirely best-effort style. Most implementations ensure that two messages sent from one actor to another maintain their order at arrival. Messaging is always asynchronous and the interleaving of incoming messages sent by multiple actors is indeterminate.

Frameworks for the Actor Model

There are many frameworks for the development of a distributed system based on the actor model. The most popular are Akka, Orleans, Service Fabric, TPL Dataflow..

TPL Dataflow model promotes actor-based programming by providing in-process message passing for coarse-grained dataflow and pipelining tasks.These dataflow components are useful when you have multiple operations that must communicate with one another asynchronously or when you want to process data as it becomes available.The TPL Dataflow Library provides a foundation for message passing and parallelizing CPU-intensive and I/O-intensive applications that have high throughput and low latency. It also gives you explicit control over how data is buffered and moves around the system.

Service Fabric Reliable Actors is an implementation of the actor design pattern.Although the actor design pattern can be a good fit to a number of distributed systems problems and scenarios, careful consideration of the constraints of the pattern and the framework implementing it must be made.

As general guidance, consider the actor pattern to model your problem or scenario if:

  • Your problem space involves a large number (thousands or more) of small, independent, and isolated units of state and logic.
  • You want to work with single-threaded objects that do not require significant interaction from external components, including querying state across a set of actors.
  • Your actor instances won’t block callers with unpredictable delays by issuing I/O operations.

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